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2010年考研英语冲刺完型填空模拟题详解一
更新:2009-12-12 14:20 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

As former colonists of Great Britain, the Founding Fathers of the United States adopted much of the legal system of Great Britain. We have a "common law", or law made by courts 1 a monarch or other central governmental 2 like a legislature. The jury, a 3 of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an 4 part of our common-law system.

    Use of juries to decide cases is a 5 feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States. 6 the centuries, many people have believed that juries in most cases reach a fairer and more just result 7 would be obtained using a judge 8 , as many countries do. 9 a jury decides cases after " 10 ", or discussions among a group of people, the jury's decision is likely to have the 11 from many different people from different backgrounds, who must as a group decide what is right.

    Juries are used in both civil cases, which decide 12 among 13 citizens, and criminal cases, which decide cases brought by the government 14 that individuals have committed crimes. Juries are selected from the U.S. citizens and 15 . Jurors, consisting of 16 numbers, are called for each case requiring a jury.

    The judge 17 to the case 18 the selection of jurors to serve as the jury for that case. In some states, 19 jurors are questioned by the judge; in others, they are questioned by the lawyers representing the 20 under rules dictated by state law.

    1.[A]other than[B]rather than[C]more than[D]or rather

    2.[A]agency[B]organization[C]institution[D]authority

    3.[A]panel[B]crew[C]band[D]flock

    4.[A]innate[B]intact[C]integral[D]integrated

    5.[A]discriminating[B]distinguishing[C]determining[D]diminishing

    6.[A]In[B]By[C]After[D]Over

    7.[A]that[B]which[C]than[D]as

    8.[A]alike[B]alone[C]altogether[D]apart

    9.[A]Although[B]Because[C]If[D]While

    10.[A]deliberations[B]meditations[C]reflections[D]speculations

    11.[A]outline[B]outcome[C]input[D]intake

    12.[A]arguments[B]controversies[C]disputes[D]hostilities

    13.[A]fellow[B]individual[C]personal[D]private

    14.[A]asserting[B]alleging[C]maintaining[D]testifying

    15.[A]assembled[B]evoked[C]rallied[D]summoned

    16.[A]set[B]exact[C]given[D]placed

    17.[A]allocated[B]allotted[C]appointed[D]assigned

    18.[A]administers[B]manages[C]oversees[D]presides

    19.[A]inspective[B]irrespective[C]perspective[D]prospective

    20.[A]bodies[B]parties[C]sides[D]units

    文章背景

    本文介绍了美国的陪审团制度。

    文章结构

    第一段指出,陪审团是美国共同法系统的基本组成部分。第二段分析了使用陪审团的原因。第三和四段分别介绍了陪审团的类型和选举程序。

    第一段:陪审团是美国共同法系统的基本组成部分(主题)

    The jury, a 3 of ordinary citizens chosen to decide a case, is an 4 part of our common?law system.

    第二段:使用陪审团的原因

    Use of juries to decide cases is a 5 feature of the American legal system. Few other countries in the world use juries as we do in the United States.

    第三和四段:陪审团的类型和选举程序。

    Juries are used in both civil cases…

    The judge 17 to the case 18 the selection of jurors to serve as…

    答案详解

    1.【解析】[B] 逻辑衔接题。空格前后是两个并列的名词courts和a monarch,所在句子的含义为:"共同法"是由法庭1君主制定。根据常识可知,美国是民主制国家,法律不由君主制定。因此空格处填入的连接词应肯定前者而否定后者,正确项是[B]rather than,即"法庭而不是君主"。other than通常用在否定句中,表示排除意义,即"除了",相当于except。rather than是连词,前后连接的成分应保持一致,可以是名词、动词、形容词、从句等,通常译为"而不是",有时可用介词短语 instead of替代。more than连接名词时除了表示"多于,超过……以上",也可以表示"不仅仅,不只是",相当于not only。or rather表示"更确切的说法是……",相当于more exactly。

    2.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。空格处填入的名词和governmental搭配,表示"像立法机关这样的中央政府……"。[A]agency一般指"服务机构,尤其是代理或经销机构";也可以指(提供特别服务)的政府专门机构,如the Central Intelligence Agency(美国中央情报局)。[B]organization泛指各种组织、团体和机构。[C]institution多指"大规模的用于特殊目的的组织",如educational institution(教育机构);或者指各种慈善机构和社会福利机构。[D]authority可表示"有权力做决定或在某个地区有特别责任范围的人们或组织",即"当局,当权者"。文中legislature指"有权制定或修改法律的一群人",即"立法机关"。因此[D]项为最佳答案。

    3.【解析】[A]语义衔接题。[A]项panel指"一组(给予意见和观点的人)",如a panel of experts专家组。crew指"(有专门技术的)一组工作人员,一起工作的一群人";band指"(因为某种共同的目的而组成且有首领的)一帮人";flock指a crowd, large number of people。而空格所在部分指的是陪审团小组,就被告有罪无罪给出观点的一组人,因此[A]项正确。

    4.【解析】[C]语义衔接题。空格所在部分的含义是:陪审团是共同法系统……部分。innate意为"天生的,先天的(品质、情感等)";intact意为"完整无缺的";integral意为"必须的,不可或缺的";integrated意为"各部分密切协调的,完整的,综合的"。根据文意,应选[C]项。

    5.【解析】[B]语义衔接题。空格部分填入的形容词作定语修饰feature,表示"使用陪审团来裁决案件是美国法律系统的一个……特征"。四个选项都是现在分词转换而成的形容词,[A]项discriminating意为"有识别力的;有辨别力的;有鉴赏力的",如a discriminating customer(有鉴赏力的顾客),它不和feature搭配。[B]项distinguishing意为"显著的,有区别的",a distinguishing feature意为"显著的特征";[C]项determining意为"决定性的",如determining factors(决定因素),determining feature(决定性的特征);[D]项diminishing意为"缩小的,减少的"。下文提到,很少有其他国家像美国一样使用陪审团制度,因此它是美国法律系统的一个较突出的特征,[B]项正确。

    6.【解析】[D]语义衔接题。[A]、[B]和[C]项都应与表示具体某个世纪的名词搭配,如in/by/after the twentieth century(在20世纪/到20世纪/20世纪以后)。over接时间名词时相当于during,表示"在……期间",over the centuries表示"几个世纪以来"。

    7.【解析】[C]结构衔接题。空格前是一个结构完整的句子juries reach a fairer and more just result,空格后是would be obtained using a judge alone。显然这里包含了一个从句,由空格处的词来连接。前文已经出现了fairer和more just,它们只能和than构成比较级。注意than在这里兼有连词和代词的性质,相当于than what,整个主从句的含义为:在大多数情况下陪审团比单独一位法官达到的结果更公平、公正。 that可代替先行词result,which和as可代替前面整个句子,但代入后句子意为"陪审团可达到更公平、公正的结果,这个(结果)可单独使用一位法官而达到",显然不符合逻辑。

    8.【解析】[B]语义衔接题。alone用在名词或代词之后可以表示"唯有、唯独"之意,文中a judge alone表示"仅有一名法官"。alike意为"十分相似地;同样地";altogether意为"完全,全部;总共,一共";apart意为"分开,分离;除外"。

    9.【解析】[B]逻辑衔接题。逻辑连接词的选择需要分析前后两句话之间的语义关系。

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