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新概念英语第二册语法_短语_知识点Lesson 6 Percy Buttons
更新:2010-07-04 13:44 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

 【New words and expressions】(4)

beggar           n. 乞丐
food             n. 食物
pocket           n. 衣服口袋
call             v. 拜访,光顾
 
★beggar     n. 乞丐
beg    v.乞求
I beg your pardon?
beg for   乞求得到
ask for   请求得到(ask sb. for sth. 向某人索要某物)
 
★food     n. 食物(不可数)
a lot of food
 
★pocket    n. 衣服口袋
inner pocket   内口袋;jacket pocket  夹克的口袋;coat pocket  大衣口袋
pocket book   袖珍书;pocket dictionary    袖珍词典
pocket pick    车上的小偷
pocket money   (小孩的)零花钱
change     零钱
get exact change    准备好正确的零花钱
beer money   (男人的)零花钱
 
★call    v. 拜访, 光顾
① vt.&vi. 叫,喊
I heard someone calling.
call out =shout   大声喊
② vt. 呼唤,召唤
Lucy is sick. Please call a doctor.
③ vi. 访问,拜访;(车、船等)停靠
Amy called (at our house) yesterday.
The train calls at large stations only.   这列火车只停大站。
call on sb. 拜访某人
I will call on you.  我要去你家。
call at+地点=visit someplace 拜访某地
I will call at your home.  我要去你家。
④ vt.&vi. 打电话
call sb =call up sb.   给某人打电话
call back    回某人电话
Can you take a message for me? =Can you tell him to call back?
call in sb.    招集和邀请某人
For the project, the government called in a lot of experts.
 
【 Text】
I have just moved to a house in Bridge Street. Yesterday a beggar knocked at my door. He asked me for a meal and a glass of beer. In return for this, the beggar stood on his head and sang songs. I gave him a meal. He ate the food and drank the beer. Then he put a piece of cheese in his pocket and went away. Later a neighbour told me about him. Everybody knows him. His name is Percy Buttons. He calls at every house in the street once a month and always asks for a meal and a glass of beer.
 
参考译文
我刚刚搬进了大桥街的一所房子. 昨天一个乞丐来敲我的门, 问我要一顿饭和一杯啤酒. 作为回报, 那乞丐头顶地倒立起来, 嘴里还唱着歌. 我给了他一顿饭. 他把食物吃完, 又喝了酒. 然后把一块乳酪装进衣袋里走了. 后来, 一位邻居告诉了我他的情况. 大家都认识他, 他叫珀西.巴顿斯. 他每月对这条街上的每户人家光顾一次, 总是请求给他一顿饭和一杯啤酒.
 
 
 
 
【课文讲解】
1、Yesterday a beggar knocked at my door.
★knock    v. 敲门
① vi. 敲门
I knocked, but no one answered.
knock at   敲(门、窗等)
knock at the door;knock at the window
② vt.&vi. 碰撞
You always knock things off the table.   你总是碰掉桌上的东西。
Jim was knocked over by a bus this morning.   今天上午吉姆被一辆公共汽车撞倒了。
She has knocked a cup over again.   她又碰倒了一个杯子。
③ vt. 把(某人)打成……状态
He knocked Tom out yesterday.   他昨天把汤姆打昏过去了。 
④ 与off连用时有一些特殊含义,一般用于口语
vt. (价格上)减去,除去,打折扣
They knocked five dollars off the price of the coat.
The shop assistant knocked 10% off the bill.(He reduced the price by 10%.)
vi. 下班,停止,中断(工作等)
When do you usually knock off?   你一般什么时候下班?
He knocked off for lunch at half past eleven.   他十一点半休息吃中午饭。
 
2、He asked me for a meal and a glass of beer.
ask (sb.) for sth =request for sth.   问某人要什么东西
(for为了这个目的去请求某人, sb.更多的时候不出现, ask for sth.)
The boy asked (his parents)for money again/once more.
 
3、In return for this, the beggar stood on his head and sang songs.
in return for this    作为对……的回报,作为交换(this 在代词当中常常指代上文的一件事情)
I'll buy a present for him in return for hospitality. (hospitality   adj. 热情)
in return    作为回报
  You lent me this interesting book last month. In return (for it), I’ll show you some picture books.
  In return for your help, I invite you to spend the weekend with my family.
He doesn't want anything in return.    他不想得到任何回报
  
stood on his head    倒立
stand on one's hands   用手着地(hand单数就是一只手, 双手复数)
stand on one's knees    跪着, 膝盖
lie on one's back   仰面躺着
lie on one's side    侧躺
lie on one's stomach    趴着
 
4、Later a neighbour told me about him.
介词about可以和一些动词连用,以表示“关于……(的)”、“涉及……(的)”
  Please tell me about the accident.
tell sb. about sth.   告诉某人某事(about关于, 通过其他事自己得出的结论)
tell you about him
tell you about the word   解释这个单词的意思
tell sb. sth.    告诉某人某件事(把事情直接告诉)
tell you the news
tell you the word   直接告诉这个单词
 
5、Everybody knows him.
everybody作为主语一定作单数看待, 属于不定代词
所有的不定代词作为主语一律为单数看待 : somebody,anybody,everything等
  
6、He calls at every house in the street once a month and always asks for a meal and a glass of beer.
calls at     光顾,拜访
in the street(英国)/on the street(美国)
once a month    一个月一次, 单位表达方式
once  adj. 表示每……一次(表示频率时后面直接加表示时间的名词), 计量单位 “/” (每……)
five kilometers an hour
He goes back to the South once a year.
 
【Key structures】 
A, The and Some
当表示不确定的某个人或物时,用不定冠词a/an(单数, 可数名词);当表示不可数的名词时,则需要由不定冠词加量词组成词组。
在表示一种笼统概念(某某一类/一种东西)的陈述句中可以省略a和some
A tiger is a dangerous animal.
Tigers are dangerous.
Salt is necessary for/to us all.
表示某个确定的人或事物或者上文已提到过的人或事物,则要用定冠词the(有时相当于this/that/these/those),可数名词单/复数或不可数名词均可。
在姓名、地名、国名(非复合词)以及月份、星期等前面不加任何冠词。
a和the的区别:a是泛指, a man;特指, the man
在文章当中第一次出现名词的时候往往用a和an修饰, 第二次出现的时候用the
A man is walking towards me. The man is carrying a parcel. The parcel is full of meat.
I have just drunk a glass of milk. Milk is  very refreshing.
I ate an apple. Apples are delicious.
She always buys flour, sugar and tea at the grocer's.
 一般姓名前一般不能加冠词,表示“某某一类人当中, 具有这种特征当中的一个”,加不定冠词a
a Mr. Zhang  张先生这类人
 
【Special Difficulties】
短语动词
某些动词的后面加上介词或副词以后就会改变词义, 这种新的组合称作短语动词
put    v. 放
put on   穿上,戴上
tak    v. 拿走
take off   脱掉,摘掉
look    v. 看
look at  看;look for  寻找;look after   照顾;look out  当心;look out of   向外看
call
call at;call on;call in;call back;
call for    去取某物, 去接某人;需要
The problem calls for immediate action.    这个问题需要立即采取行动
knock   v. 敲
knock at   敲门
knock off   下班
He knocked off earlier.
knock off   打折
 Knock 10% off the price.
把……撞倒,如果有地点,用介词off;无地点,用介词over
knock sth. off+地点
knock the vase off the table
I knocked the boy off the bicycle.
knock over
A car knocked the boy over.
knock out   打晕, 在拳击场合中, 把人打倒在地叫knock out(专用术语)
 He did not know how to fight, but he knocked the boxer out.
 
【Multiple choice questions】
5  A neighbour told me about him. He ___d___ Percy Buttons was a beggar.
a. told      b. said me      c. told to me       d. said
He says + 句子;He says +that+句子;say to sb.
tell sb. +that+句子
He said to me/He told me    他告诉我
He told me he was a Beggar./He said he was a Beggar.
 
6  Everybody knows him. ___a___ know him.
a. They all         b. Each         c. Every       d. All they
all of us, we all   我们所有人
every     adj. 每一个
every <adj.> +n. 每一个(书, 本, 人等)
every person likes…
 each     adj.&pron. 每一个
each <adj.> +n;each <pron.>直接作主语或者宾语
each <adj.> person likes.../each <pron.> likes...
every只能是形容词性,强调整体,常用来指一个大的、不确定的数目,不能直接做主语;each既可作形容词,又可作代词,强调个体,常用以一个确定的并通常是有限的数目,在作代词时,直接作主语或宾语,使用第三人称单数
  Each child in the school was questioned.
  Every child enjoys Christmas.
  Each of us has his own work to do.
  They each have a share.
 
7  ___d___ does he call? Once a month.
a. How seldom        b. How long        c. How soon     d. How often
once a month   每月一次, 属于频率
对频率提问 : how often
How often do you visit your mother?   对时间和次数提问
提问多久 : how long
How long do you visit your mother?    对时间提问
提问次数 : how many times
How many times do you visit your mother each month?
how soon 多久以后
How soon will you finish your homework?
 
8  A beggar is a person who ___a___ .
a. asks for money but doesn't work       b. asks for food
c. works hard                           d. is out of work
 out of work 失业
I am out of work./I lose my job.
 
10  She gave him a piece of cheese. He put the ___a___ of cheese in his pocket.
a. bit       b. bar         c. block        d. packet
a bit of /a piece of 在英文中经常互用
bar 门闩 : 长条状 :
a bar of chocolate; a bar of soap
block    n. 房子;块, 一大块;v. 堵塞
packet   一包
 
12  All the houses in our ___a___ are the same age and size.
a. street         b. way         c. road        d. route
same age and size 同年代同样式
street 两边有房子的街道, 强调城市里的街道
way, on the way, in the way 挡住某人的路(强调方向)
road 路的通称
road home 通往家的路 (张艺谋的影片《我的父亲母亲》的英文名)
route 路线
 
〖语法精粹〗
1.How can you___B___if you are not ____?
A. listening/hearing         B. hear/listening
 C. be listening/hear         D. be hearing/listening to
如果你不听, 怎么可能听见呢?
listen听/hear听见
 
2.The girl even won't have her lunch before she__D__her homework.
A. will finish           B. is finishing         C. had finished         D. finishes
状语从句中, 用一般现在时取代将来时.
 
3.Those who have applied for the post__A__in the office.
A. are being interviewed             B. are interviewing
C. interviewing (光动词+ing不能构成谓语) 
D. to be interviewing (不定式不能构成谓语动词)
apply for    申请
interview    面试
在英文中, 只能领导对员工面试,员工只能被面试,动词用被动
 
4.The old scientist __C___to do more for the country.
A. is wishing        B. has been wishing         C. wishes       D. has been wished 
D为被动语态,从语法上说合理, 但不合情
表示状态、感觉、情绪、精神活动的动词不可用于进行时态.
wish sb. to do  希望某人做某事
 
5.If he___B___,don't wake him up.
A. still sleeps                    B. is still sleeping    
C. still had been sleeping       D. will be sleeping still
如果他在睡觉的话, 不要吵醒他
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