【New words and expressions】（7）
rare adj. 罕见的
ancient adj. 古代的，古老的
myth n. 神话故事
trouble n. 麻烦
effect n. 结果，效果
Medusa n. 美杜莎（古希腊神话中3位蛇发女怪这一）
Gorgon n. （古希腊神话）3位蛇发女怪之一（凡见其貌者都会变成石头）
★rare adj. 罕见的
① adj. 罕见的
rare animal 稀有动物；rare bird 珍稀鸟类；rare illness 疑难杂症
scarce adj. 缺乏的，不足的，稀有的，不充足的（少有的，表示某个时间段或某个地方少有）
Watermelon is scarce in winter. （watermelon  n. 西瓜）
② adj. 几乎是生的
well done 全熟
medium adj. 半生半熟的
★ancient adj. 古代的, 古老的
ancient Egypt   古埃及
antique adj. 古代的，古玩，古董，古老而有价值的
antique furniture 古董家具
★myth n. 神话故事
fairy n. 神仙故事
★trouble n. 麻烦
① n. 麻烦
I'm sorry to put you in trouble. 我很抱歉给你带来麻烦(口语)
ask for trouble 自找麻烦
He is asking for trouble.
have trouble in doing sth. 在做……时遇到麻烦（书面语）
I have trouble (in) parking the car.
=I have a lot of trouble parking the car.
② v. 麻烦
Woman/Man/Child troubles. 女人/男人/孩子真麻烦。
Never trouble troubles until troubles trouble you. 永远不要自寻烦恼
Let sleeping dog lie. 不要自找麻烦 (let sb. do sth.)
★effect n. 结果, 效果
have an effect 有效果
have no effect 没有效果
have effect on 对……有效果
The advice has no effect on me.
Jasper White is one of those rare people who believe in ancient myths. He has just bought a new house in the city, but ever since he moved in, he has had trouble with cars and their owners. When he returns home at night, he always finds that someone has parked a car outside his gate. Because of this, he has not been able to get his own car into his garage even once. Jasper has put up 'No Parking' signs outside his gate, but these have not had any effect. Now he has put an ugly stone head over the gate. It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. I asked him what it was and he told me that it was Medusa, the Gorgon. Jasper hopes that she will turn cars and their owners to stone. But none of them has been turned to stone yet!
贾斯珀.怀特是少有的相信古代神话的人之一. 他刚在城里买下一所新房子, 但自从搬进去后, 就和汽车及车主们发生了磨擦. 当他夜里回到家时, 总是发现有人把车停在他家大门外. 为此, 他甚至一次也没能把自己的车开进车库. 贾斯珀曾把几块 “禁止停车” 的牌子挂在大门外边, 但没有任何效果. 现在他把一个丑陋的石雕头像放在了大门上边, 这是我见过的最丑陋的头像之一. 我问他那是什么?他告诉我那是蛇发女怪美杜莎. 贾斯珀希望她把汽车和车主们都变成石头. 但到目前为止还没有一个变成石头呢!
1、Jasper White is one of those rare people who believe in ancient myths.
one of +名词/代词 其中之一（of后面的名词必须是复数，但与这个结构连用的动词必须是单数）
One of your friends is waiting for you now.
如果在定语从句中出现了one of作为先行词, 它后边的关系代词指代的是后面的复数名词；如果在one of前面还有一修饰词 (the) only,那么后边的关系代词将指代one这个词, 才作单数看
He is the only one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths.
one of 直接作主语的时候, 它是做单数看待的
One of the answers is ture.
One of those people is good.
believe vt. 相信，认为
Do you believe that cats eat grass?
believe in 信任，信赖（人格、力量等）；信仰；相信……的存在，相信……的价值
I believe in God. 我信仰上帝。
I’ve never believed in John.
2、He has just bought a new house in the city, but ever since he moved in, he has had trouble with cars and their owners.
ever since =since 从那以后一直（ever since的语气比since强，主句一般用完成时）
I’ve been interested in flying ever since I was a boy.
He left the village last year and has never returned ever since.
have trouble doing 做……有麻烦
have trouble with sb. 和某人相处有麻烦
I have trouble with my roommate.
3、Because of this, he has not been able to get his own car into his garage even once.
You can’t remember his name, because you aren’t really thinking.
because of 由于，介词短语，后面不可以跟从句，只能跟名词、代词或动词 “-ing”
He came back early because of the rain.
be able to 的主语一般都是人, 表示有能力去做；can表示天生的或学到的能力时，只能用于现在时和过去时（could），而不可用于将来时。将来时中表示能力时必须用be able to。在现在时和过去时中，can/could与be able to一般可以互换，在完成时中一般用be able to。
Tom is only 9 months old and he is already able to stand up.
I’ll be able to pass my driving test after I’ve had a few lessons.
get sth. into 把……弄进
get his car into his garage
drive the car into 把车子撞上……
I drove the car into the wall /tree.
even once 甚至一次（even 起强调）
4、It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen.
“I have ever seen” 做定语从句, 修饰前边的faces
如果关系词在从句中做宾语, 关系词可以省略, 所以 I 前的which被省略
This is the most difficult thing I have ever done.
This is the most terrible news I have ever heard.
of all the students
He is the tallest in the room.
5、Jasper hopes that she will turn cars and their owners to stone.
turn sth. to… 把前者变成后者
turn the prince to a frog
He was turned to a frog.
They have turned the famous beauty spot to/into an ugly place.
6、But none of them has been turned to stone yet!
none of，neither of做主语时做单数看待
My wife (drives) (leads) a car. She has (driven) (ridden) a car for many years (and) (but) she says that women drivers (do not deserve) (are not worth) their bad reputation. Yet, on the road, she often (criticizes) (judges) other women drivers.
drives/driven/and/do not deserve/criticizes
reputation  n.名誉, 名声
judge  n.法官, 审判员, 裁判员, 鉴赏家, 鉴定人, (J-)最高的审判者 vt.审理, 鉴定, 判断, 判决, 断定, 认为 vi.下判断, 作评价
Wht has happened? 现在完成时
与现在完成时连用的副词和副词短语：before(now)，so far，up to/till now，just，already，now，ever，never，since和for等，since一般与一个时间点连用，for一般与时间段连用。
① 代人的, 做主语或宾语who，只做宾语的whom
② 代物的, 做主语或宾语 which
③ 代人的也可以代物的 做主语或宾语 that
关系代词后面要加从句，先行词放在定语从句前面, 而且是两句话共同含有的词, 还是被定语从句修饰的词
I have a book that/which he likes.( “book” 为先行词 “that/which” 为关系代词)
关系代词有两个功能 : 一是承上, 一是启下(如上句中的 “book” 作从句的宾语)
The boy who is standing at the door is my brother.
I can do anything that I can do. 我愿意做我力所能及的事情来帮助你
The boat whose name is...
I have a house whose windows are broken. 我有一个房子, 房子的窗户都破了.
The millionaire whose son ran away from home a week ago is not a kink father.
whose 后面一定要加一个名词, 然后这个部分共同做主语或宾语
The boy whose sister is standing at the door is my brother.
The pilot whose plane landed in a field was not hurt.
He is the right person I am looking for.
Exersise(在需要的地方填上who, which, that或whose)
1 The only games ______ I play are football and tennis.
不填 （如果要填只能是that, 在从句中作宾语可省略）
先行词如果用only, 序数词, 形容词最高级修饰, 其后边的关系词只用that
4 This is the hotel at ______ we are staying.
句中的 “at” 原来在 “staying” 的后边
介词后加物的话, 只加which,加人的话, 用whom, 都不可用that,who也不能
She is the girl who/whom/that I stayed with. (句中 “who/whom/that” 可省略)
She is the girl with whom I stayed.
That is the house in which I live.
6 That is the horse ______ won the race.
选which , 不能用that，句子中用词避免重复, 句首已有了一个 “that” , 故选 “which” 而不是 “that”
Who is the man that is helping you? 谁是那个正在帮助你的人?（不用“who”避免重复）
7 He is the sort of person ______ everyone admires.
person 是先行词, 在从句中做宾语
【Multiple choice questions】
6.It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. I've never seen ___d___
a. an ugly one b.an ugliest one c. the ugliest one d.an uglier one
better than anything else 最好
The teacher is the tallest in the room.
The teacher is taller than anyone else in the room.
I have never seen a taller one.
I have never bought a more expensive one.
This is the cleanest street I have ever seen. 这是我所见过的最干净的街道了.
7 ___b___ of them has been turned to stone.
a. No one b. Not one c. No d. Even one
no 是形容词, 后加名词
no one =nobody (“nobody” 指的是人, 它将 “cars” 排除了是不对的)，不定代词后不用of
可以用的有 : neither of/none of/both of/all of
none of =not one of
9 He is a rare person. You ___c___ meet such people.
a. often b. never c. seldom d. sometimes
rarely  adv.很少地, 罕有地
seldom  adv.很少, 不常
10 Not all car owners are good ___d___ .
a. guides b. conductors c. leaders d. drivers
not all 不是所有的（部分否定概念）
Not all students are good.
Not all children are naughty.
12 The signs haven't had any effect. They haven't ___a___ anyone.
a. affected b. effected c. resulted in d. imposed
effect n. 影响
have effect 有效果
affect v. 影响