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新概念英语第二册语法短语知识点Lesson 31 Success story
更新:2010-07-09 14:03 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

【New words and expressions】(8)
retire   v. 退休
company   n. 公司
bicycle   n. 自行车
save   v. 积蓄
workshop   n. 车间
helper   n. 帮手,助手
employ   v. 雇佣
grandson   n. 孙子

★retire     v. 退休
retire =stop working =stop doing this
He is getting old, He is going to retire.   他越来越老, 他打算退休了
I'm going to retire next year.      我明年会退出影坛或歌坛
I'm so tired that I'm going to retire now. (retire = go to bed)

★company    n. 公司
firm    n. 商行
corporation     n. 责任公司
limited corporation      有限责任公司(缩略形式:Ltd.Co)
business     n. 生意,公司
He works in my business.     他在我的公司工作

★save     vt. 积蓄
① vt. 挽救,救助,拯救
save one's life
The doctor saved the child’s life.
They saved the child from the fire.
save one's face   挽会面子
② vt. 积蓄,储蓄
He used to save letters.
save money  存钱
  He saved (money) for years to buy a car.
西方人不喜欢提钱, 所以用 save up 表示存钱
I have saved up for many years.   我已经存了好几年的钱
Save it for a rainy day.   未雨绸缪, 为将来需要而做好准备

★workshop     n. 车间
workshop     n. 车间(工作并且可以拿出来卖)
workhouse    n. 感化院(强迫劳动的地方)

★helper     n. 帮手, 助手
assistant    n. 助理

★employ      v. 雇佣
employee    n. 雇员  ;employer     n. 雇主
trainer     n. 教练  ;trainee      n. 接受训练的人

【Text】
Yesterday afternoon Frank Hawkins was telling me about his experiences as a young man. Before he retired, Frank was the head of a very large business company, but as a boy he used to work in a small shop. It was his job to repair bicycles and at that time he used to work fourteen hours a day. He saved money for years and in 1958 he bought a small workshop of his own. In his twenties Frank used to make spare parts for aeroplanes. At that time he had two helpers. In a few years the small workshop had become a large factory which employed seven hundred and twenty-eight people. Frank smiled when he remembered his hard early years and the long road to success. He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife came in. She wanted him to repair their grandson's bicycle!

参考译文
昨天下午弗兰克.霍金斯向我讲述了他年轻时的经历. 在退休前, 弗兰克是一家非常大的商业公司的经理, 但他小时候却在一家小铺里做工. 他那时的工作是修理自行车, 并且通常是一天工作14个小时. 他靠多年积蓄, 于1958年买下了自己的一个小铺子. 20多岁的时候, 弗兰克曾生产飞机零配件. 那时他有两个帮手. 几年之后, 小铺子已经发展成了一个雇有728人的大工厂. 弗兰克回想着他早年的艰难经历和走过的漫长的成功之路, 微笑了. 他正笑着的时候门开了, 他的妻子走了进来. 她叫他去修理孙子的自行车.

【课文讲解】
1、Before he retired, Frank was the head of a very large business company, but as a boy he used to work in a small shop.
head是“首领、头目”的意思,“the head of+名词”的意思是“……的老板,头”
  John is the head of the family.    一家之主
  Frank is the head of the firm.    弗兰克是那家公司的总裁。
used to do sth.    过去常常, 但是现在不做
My teacher used to live there.     我的老师过去住在那(现在不住了)
He lived there.     他过去住在那(不知道现在是否住在那)
work…as…     作为……工作
He used to work as a teacher.
as a boy = as he was a boy     (as的意思是“当……的时候”)
as a young man     当他年轻的时候

2、It was his job to repair bicycles and at that time he used to work fourteen hours a day.
at that time =just then =at that moment     那时

3、He saved money for years and in 1958 he bought a small workshop of his own.
of one's own    自己的,属于自己的(own为代词)
  Do you have a house of your own?
my own book  (own 起强调作用, 自己的)
用of one's own 或 one's own 由被修饰词的位置决定, 如果被修饰名词在前边, 用of one's own, 如果被修饰名词在后边, 用one's own
4、In his twenties Frank used to make spare parts for aeroplanes.
in one's -ies     在某人几十岁的时候
in one's twenties/thirties/forties/fifties/nineties,十的倍数的复数形式可用于表达近似的、非确定的数量,与所有格形容词连用时表示大约的年龄。
in my fifties    在我五十多岁的时候
In his fifties, he learned the second language.
in the 1980s      在二十世纪八十年代
I worked /began the job in the 1990s.

5、In a few years the small workshop had become a large factory which employed seven hundred and twenty-eight people.
has become      成长为……
in a few years     在一些年之后
…factory which employed…      工厂雇佣……(除了人可以雇佣外,工厂、公司也可以这样表达)

6、Frank smiled when he remembered his hard early years and the long road to success.
one’s hard early years =early in one’s life    某人的早年艰辛(生活)
the long road to success      通往成功的长路
There is a long way to go.   还有很长的路要走。
remember    v. 记得, 回忆起
memory   n. 记忆     ;memorize   v. 记住

【Key structures】 
过去进行时与一般过去时
过去进行时表示过去某个时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作,和一般过去时经常在一个句子里使用。与一般过去时相比,它更强调动作的持续性,一般过去时则表示比较短暂的动作或事件。在叙述故事时,过去进行时往往用来表示背景。
When I was watering the garden, it began to rain.
As I was getting on the bus, I slipped and hurt my foot.

used to do
used to do表示过去有过但现在已不存在的习惯,以便将过去与现在形成对照。它后面经常用由but now…,but not…any more/any longer等构成的、用了一般现在时的句子以强调过去和现在的不同之处。
  I used to smoke, but I don’t any more/longer.
He used to be a postman a long time ago.  He's a taxi driver now.
很久以前他曾是个邮递员, 现在他是个出租车司机.
I have given up smoking.  I used to smoke very heavily.
我已经戒烟了, 过去我吸烟很厉害.
I used to collect stamps when I was a boy.
当我还是个小男孩时, 我常搜集邮票.
used to仅用于一般过去。它的疑问句和否定句形式可以不用助动词do而用used本身。
  Used he to smoke?
  He usedn’t /used not to smoke.
但比较常用的形式是did和didn’t
  Did he use to smoke?
  He didn’t use to smoke.
在针对used to提问时,一般也用did:
  I used to be a good swimmer.
  Did you really? I didn’t even know you could swim.

【Special Difficulties】
Experience
① n. 经历(可数名词)
He told me about his experiences as a young man.
② n. 经验(不可数名词)
They want someone with a lot of experience for this job.
Does she have any experience in teaching?
③ vt. 经验,体验
The village has experienced great changes since 1980.

experienced     adj. 有经验的,经验丰富的
  John is an experienced driver.

Save
① vt.& vi. 救助,搭救,拯救
save one's life      挽救某人的生命
  The doctor saved the child’s life.
save one's face    挽回面子
② vt.& vi. 储蓄,积攒
save money     存钱(多余的钱)
  He saved (money) for years to buy a car.
save it for a rainy day     未雨绸缪
economize []   v.经济,节省(能不用的就不用,节衣缩食)

Work and Job
work和job都翻译为“工作”,job为可数名词,一般与“职业、职位”有关,或表示某人的“份内事”;work作“工作”讲时是不可数名词,常指具体的“劳动、作业”或“(待做的)工作或事务”等,也可能表示“上班”。
John is looking for a new job.
I’m looking for work as a driver.
I am looking for a new job.
It was his job to repair bicycles.

【Composition】
Frank (not only) (neither) (repaired) (made)his grandson's bicycle, (but)(also)went for a ride on it(as well)(both). He (said)(told)me later:‘I(make)(do)aeroplanes, (and) (but) I prefer bicycles.’
not only / repaired / but /as well / told /make/ but
go for a ride/go for a walk 骑车出去/出去散步
ride a car/bicycle/horse
go for a ride on sth (对自行车只能用 “on” )  出去骑车
prefer [] vt.更喜欢, 宁愿
【Multiple choice questions】
1  When he was a young man, Frank __d__.
a. owned a small shop      b. made spare parts for aeroplanes
c. made spare parts for bicycles   d. worked hard and saved his money
 (a)(b)选项是作为 “he was a young man” 中的一个部分

3  Frank used to work in a small shop. He ___a___.
a. doesn't anymore    b. still does
c. is now       d. has never done anything else
not anymore     不再
I will not make the mistake anymore.

4  He used to work fourteen hours a day. He did this ___c___ day.
a. one   b. some    c. each    d. a
every day / each day 每天
one day 有一天 ; some day 某一天 ; a 作为计量单位的一部分
I will beat you some day.    总有一天我会打败你

8  Frank is the ___a___ of a business company.
a. director        b. headmaster     c. superior    d. leader
leader     n. 起带头作用的人
headmaster []     n. 校长
director     n. 管理公司或单位整个事务的人
Frank is a director of a business company.
superior     n.  监理

12  He was still smiling when the door opened and his wife ___c___.
a. went in   b. entered in   c. entered   d. entered into
into 后面一定要加地点
enter 既是及物动词, 也是不及物动词
enter=go in/come in 
go in 与 come in 都可以用enter代替, 但go in(离说话人越来越远) 与 come in(离说话人越来越近) 方向不一样,文中强调的是 “进去” 而非 “进来”

 

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