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新概念英语第三册自学导读 Lesson51
更新:2009-09-01 23:42 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  
Notes on the text
课文注释

1  in the mid 1970s,在20世纪70年代中叶。

2  so-called,号称,所谓的。

3  Mainframe computers were very large indeed…software. 在这句话中,现在分词短语occupying和employing以及过去分词短语run均作主语mainframe computers的修饰成分。

4  take over,接收,接管。

5  home computer,家用电脑。

6  a then small company,那时候规模尚小的一个公司。

7  dismiss the idea that…,个考虑……这个想法。

8  the Internet, the worldwide system that…,后面的这个短语用来进一步说明名词the Internet,是它的同位语,这种用法在科技类的文章中很常见。

参考译文

众所周知,预测未来是非常困难的。举个例子吧,在20世纪70年代中叶又有谁能想像得到在20世纪末的时候,家庭用的计算机会像电视机一样普遍?在70年代,计算机已经相当普及了,但只用在大的公司、政府部门和大的组织之中,它们被称为主机。计算机主机确实很大,常常占据了装有空调的多间房间,雇用专职的技师,而且得用专门编写的软件才能运行。虽然这种大计算机仍然存在,但是它们的许多功能已被体积小但功能齐全的个人电脑——即我们常说的PC机——所代替了。

1975年,美国推出了一台被称为“牛郎星”的原始机型。严格地说起来,它可以被称为第一台“家用电脑”,而且它也指出了今后的方向。70年代末,在牛郎星之后又出现了一种被称为“苹果”的机型。80年代初,计算机行业的王牌公司美国国际商用机器公司(IBM)生产出了世界上第一台个人电脑。这种电脑采用了一种被称为磁盘操作系统(DOS)的工作程序,而这种程序是由当时规模不大的微软公司生产的。IBM的个人电脑被大规模地模仿。从那些简陋的初级阶段,我们看到了现在都已普及的、使用简便的家用电脑和多媒体的微机的发展。

想一想这些发展的时间多么短,就更觉得英国人莱昂·巴格瑞特有着非凡的能力。他在60年代就能预言我们今天知道的计算机的一些用途。巴格瑞特根本不接受计算机可以学会自己去“思考”和计算机可以“统治世界”这种想法,而这种想法是当时的人们都愿意相信的。巴格瑞特预示有一天计算机可以小到拿在手上,计算机可以提供有关交通阻塞的信息,并建议可供选择的其他路线,计算机在医院里可以帮助医生诊断病情,计算机可以使办公室人员和会计免除那些枯燥、重复的劳动。计算机的所有这些功能现在都变得很平常。当然了,莱昂·巴格瑞特根本没有可能预测到国际交互网——就是把计算机连结到电话线路上,以便和世界上任何一个地方的人立即进行联系的一个世界范围的通讯系统——的发展。他也无法预测到我们可以利用国际交互网获取有关任何已知专题的信息,以便在家里的屏幕上阅读,如果愿意的话甚至可以将其打印出来。计算机已经变得体积越来越小、功能越来越多、价格越来越低,这就是莱昂·巴格瑞特的预测非凡的地方。如果他或是像他的什么人今天还活着的话,他大概可以告诉我们下一个50年后会发生什么事情。

Multiple choice questions
多项选译题

Choose the correct answers to the following questions.

Comprehension
理解

1  In the mid 1970s, computers were ______ .

a.notoriously unreliable

b.rather rare

c.in widespread use

d.not at all common

2  The importance of the Altair was that it ______ .

a.did not need specially-written software to run it

b.put computing power within the reach of ordinary people

c.helped to establish Microsoft DOS as the standard system

d.was widely copied by IBM and other big manufacturers

3  Leon Bagrit foresaw that before long ______ .

a.we would be able to teach computers to think like human beings

b.computers would bring about the development of the Internet

c.computers in hospitals would diagnose illnesses and prescribe treatments

d.computers in commerce would take over many repetitive tasks

4  Leon Bagrit's most important insight into the future development of computers was in terms of their ______ .

a.ability to relieve people of boring tasks

b.size, power and cost

c.use in traffic management

d.commonplace use in offices and hospitals

Structure 结构

5  It is notoriously difficult ______ the future. (1. 1)

a.when predicting

b.the prediction of

c.to predict

d.that we predict

6  Who could have imagined that ______ as many computers as TV sets? (11. 1-4)

a.there would be

b.there to be

c.their being

d.there were

7  People in those days liked to believe in computers ______ the world. (11. 18-19)

a.taking over and ruling

b.that took over and ruled

c.take over and rule

d.to take over and rule

8  ______ Bagrit's predictions so remarkable is their accuracy. (1. 28)

a.What makes

b.Why are

c.How many are

d.They make

Vocabulary 词汇

9  Bagrit ______ the idea that computers would rule the world. (11. 18-19)

a.refuted

b.refused

c.rejected

d.discharged

10  Bagrit foresaw that computers would become ______ small to hold in the hand. (11. 19-20)

a.adequately

b.sufficiently

c.capably

d.possibly

11  All these computer uses have become ______ . (11. 22-23)

a.relatively normal

b.more or less frequent

c.taken for granted

d.unexceptionable

12  The Internet enables us to ______ instantly with anyone in any part of the world. (11. 24-25)

a.get in touch

b.contact

c.send a message

d.convey an idea
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