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新概念英语第三册语法精粹 第八章 介 词
更新:2010-09-12 12:45 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

金牌要点:

“英语是介词和动词的语言”,由此可见,掌握介词的用法何其重要。

学习介词的最好方法是要弄清楚介词与介词之间位置上的关系,请参考下图:

above

                                               over

                                       to on from         

In

through

 

 

 

into     out of   by

under

below

I.分类:

 

1.常用简单介词:

aboutacrossagainstamongafteratbehindbesidesbeyondbyconcerningbeneathbetweendespiteexceptduringdownforfrompastthanunderuntil 等。

2.合成介词:

insideoutsideontoout ofwithin等。

3.短语介词:

according toahead ofalong withas forbecause ofbe means ofdue toin spite ofon behalf ofowing towith regard to等。

 

II.介词与“……的”之关系:

 

在英语学习中,一遇到“……的”,大家就会立刻想到’s 所有格或者of,实际上,在很多情况下,“……的”必须借助于介词才能准确表达。

以下请学员重复记忆:

美国的冬天 the winter in America

停车场的入口 the entrance to the parking lot

穿过森林的小路 the path through the forest

鲁迅的著作 the works by Lu Xun

水中的月亮 the moon reflected in water

历史的见证 the witness to history

对爱的渴望 a longing for love

对我们不利的证据 the evidence against us

阳光下的漫步 a walk in the sunlight

追求名誉的女人 a lady after fame

两人之间的争论 an argument between the two persons

 

重要介词的重要用法:

1from:此介词表示“to”相反的方向。

He came from London.

Hewent to London.  

二词常搭配使用“from ... to...

WestudiedEnglish from morningtoafternoon

He'll start fromBeijingto Shanghai.

 

经典用法:

由于 The girl is trembling from fear.

免除 Tramps are always free from care. 流浪汉们总是无忧无虑。

分开 The couple parted from each other at the airport.

由……制成 The red wine is made from grapes. 红葡萄酒是由葡萄制成的

from引导的惯用法:

from far 从远处

from now / then on从现在 / 那时起

from bad to worse 每况愈下

from time to timeoccasionally 时而)

 

习语:

She comes to visit me from time to time

 

2out of :表示与“into”相反的语意

He will be out of town.

I stepped out of the dark room.

out of+ 名词 (= lack, to be without 用完,用光)

He went to the shop because he was out of paper.

out of date (= old-fashioned 过时的)

The book has been out of date.

out of work (= jobless 失业的)

He needs money because be is out of work.

out of the question (= impossible 不可能的)

Finishing the hard work is out of the question.

out of question (= doubtless 毫无疑问的)

That hecan doit well is out of question.

out of order= not functioning 失灵的)

Her radio is out of order, so she can't listen to it.

 

3by: 表示从旁经过或在……附近。

经典用法:

通过→This is the nearest road by which they came.

在……时候→The young man works by day and steals money by night.

由……所生→He has two sons by her second wife.

抓住→She caught her child by his coat in the flood.

按……计算→The farmers sell their apples by the pound.

就(气质,特征)而言→He is an artist by temperament(气质)。

He passed by me without saying hello.

He lives by the sea.

用于被动语意,导出动作执行者

The glass was broken by the boy.

by + 具体时间:

They usually have dinner by 8 o'clock.

by + 交通工具 (bus, train, plan...)

He travelled to Paris by air / plane.

by the end of + 时间名词:到……末为止。

By the end of last year, they had learnt 100 texts.

By the end of this term, they will have learnt 100 texts.

by then: 到那时

He will graduate in 1999, by then he will leave Beijing.

by way of (= via) 经由,取道

They are going to the United States by way of Hong Kong.

by the way 顺便问

By the way, do you know where Mr. Li has gone?

by far: ……得多(用于修饰比较级和最高级)

The book is by far the best on the subject

by accident [不小心,与on purpose(故意地)语意相反]

The wrong information was put into the computer by accident.

 

4in: 在……内部,与 "out" 语意相反。

All the students are in the classroom.

In + month / year: 在某月 / In January, in 2000

In time 及时

They arrived at the station in time.

In the street 在街上

In the past 在过去

In the future 在未来

In the beginning 开始,起初

In the end 最后,终于

In the way 挡住去路

He couldn't drive his car away because a big stone was in the way.

once in a while 时而

Once in a while, he went to the Museum.

in no time at all 立刻,迅速

He finished his homework in no time at all.

in the meantime 同时

He was having supper, and in the meantime he watched TV.

in a row 坐在某一排上

We sat in the 20th row of the cinema.

in the event that 如果

In the event that you pass the exam, I'll telephone you.

in case 万一,如果

Bring you raincoat in case it rains.

get in touch with 与……取得联系

keep in touch with 与……保持联系

 

5on: 位于某物体表面上。

The dishes are on the round table.

on a day / date 在某天及某天的上,下午,晚上

on Wednesday, on February 9th , 1999

on Friday afternoon, on a dark night.

on a / the + (bus, plane, ship, train, bike)

He went to school on a bus.

on a ... street 在某条街道

Mrs. Smith lives on 5th 'Avenue.

on the floor of a building. 位于某层楼

on time 准时(比 in time 具体)

on the corner (of two streets) 在两条街道相交的一角

That shoe store is on the corner of 2 nd Street and 5th Avenue.

on the sidewalk 在人行道上

on the way 在途中

on the right / left 在右侧 / 左侧

on the television / the radio 在电视 / 收音机里

The manager will make a speech onthe TV.

on the telephone 打电话

You are wanted on the phone. 有您的电话

on the whole 总的来说,总体上

on the one hand, or the other hand 一方面,另一方面

on sale 出售

The books are on salefor $7 each.

on foot 步行

 

6at: 此介词通常用来指某一特定时间和地点。

at + 地点

Mr. Smith lives at 15, 16th Avenue.

注:在某条街道On... street,而在某街某号应用at

at + 特定时间

At 7:00 in the morning, he goes towork.

at home / school / work 在家 上学 上班


at night 在晚上 

at best 充其量 

at times 有时

at peace 和平状态 

at least 至少

at worst 最差

at intervals 间或,时而

at random 随意,胡乱地

at most 至多

at present 目前,现在

at war 交战

at leisure 悠闲自得地

at a loss 不知所措

at large 逍遥法外

 


 

 

7)其它介词短语:

in place of / instead of 代替

for the most part mainly 主要地

in hopes of 希望……

off and on 时断时续

all of a sudden 突然

for good 永远

 

8)动词短语 + 介词构成的习语

break off 结束

The two countries broke off their diplomatic relationship.

bring up 抚养,提出

call on sb. 要求,拜访,呼吁

He called on the workers to struggle.

care for 关心,照顾,喜爱

She only cares for new clothes.

I have to care for my son after school

check on 调查

come along with sb. 伴随,和某人在一起

come down with 因……而生病

Last summer, many people came down with intestinal disorders.

count on 依靠、指望

do away with 摆脱

draw up 起草

drop out of (school ... ) 退(学)

figure out 弄明白,弄清楚

find out 发现,查明(事实)

get by: 设法生存

Despite the high cost of living, we will get by on our salary.

get through 完成,接通(电话)

It's not easy to get through the work in a day.

How can I get through to you?

get up 起床,组织

Aparty will be got up in my house.

go along with 同意

hold on to 抓住,坚持

In spite of being a millionaire, he holds on to his usual living ways.

hold up 抢劫,忍受,停止

The bank was held up last night.

He held up very well after the death of his wife.

The work had been held up.

pass out 昏迷 run across 遇见,见到

I ran across some old friends yesterday.

 run into 偶然碰见

When Tom was in London, he ran into his good friend at the theatre.

see about 考虑

The young man is seeing about getting a ticket for the football game.

take over for 替代

I took over for Janet because she was ill.

talk over 讨论

try out 试验,试行

They are trying out a new idea to help the poor students.

Turn in 上交,睡觉

After a tiring day, he turned in early.

watch out for 警觉

Please watch out for thieves.

weigh on sb. 压迫,使……焦虑

Some problems are weighing on me, so I can't sleep well.

 

测试精编

 

1)单选:

1. Where is your hometown?

It is about 20 miles ________ the east of Chicago.

A. in          B. on          C. to         D. by

 

2.  When I met Jenny, I took a liking ________ her at once.

A. of          B. for          C. on         D. in

 

3.  I am ________ your temper.

A. fed up by                   B. fed up with

C. fed up because of             D. fed up to

 

4. — Do you like working as a waiter?

— Yes, but I get tired ________ the whole day.

A. with standing                B. from standing

C. to stand                     D. of the standing

 

5.  The accident clearly resulted ________ your carelessness.

A. in           B. on          C. for        D. from

 

6. — Why do you ask if I've been smoking?

— Because you smell ________ cigarettes.

A. of           B. by          C. with          D. as

 

7.  The colleges vary so greatly that the problem was finally answered only ________.

A. with respect to a specific college

B. getting to specific college

C. with a view to specific college

D. with a regard to a specific college

 

8. — Have you some other reasons ________ the ones you just mentioned above?

 — Yes, I do.

A. in addition     B. besides      C. off          D. beside

 

9. — Do you ever dance like that in public?

 — Certainly not! That would be ________ my dignity.

A. beneath       B. under        C. beyond       D. above

 

10. —What do you have to do tomorrow?

I'll have to ________ in a conference.

A. join          B. taking part     C. attend        D. participate

 

11. Modern technological advances are being made, but ________.

A. with highly considerable expense

B. at a great expense

C. with great expense involved

D. by a lot of expense

 

12. — Why didn't you go to the lecture yesterday evening?

— ________, I changed my mind.

A. On a second thought          B. By the second thought

C. On second thoughts           D. By secondthoughts

 

13. ________ one time, Manchester was the home of the most productive cotton mills in the world.

A. On           B. By           C. To            D. At

 

14. — Wasn't the issue settled?

— No, the two sides are still ________ conflict.

A. in            B. during        C. on           D. with

 

15. — How do you like these articles?

They are not much ________ demand now.

A. on            B. in           C. at             D. for

 

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