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新概念英语第三册语法精粹 第十二章 容易混淆的动词
更新:2010-09-12 12:49 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

在学习英语动词时,一些初学者常碰到大量易混淆的同义词,下面就几组常用的动词加以比较。

 

1. riseraisearisearouse

 “rise” 是不及物动词,过去式为rose,过去分词为risen,其基本词义“上升,上涨”。

The sun rises in the east.

A good idea rose in my mind. “raise” 是及物规则动词,“举起,提高”。

He raised his voice to make himself heard.

The boy can raise the heavy stone.

“arise”,是不及物动词,过去式为arose,过去分词arisen,其语义为“出现,发生”

His curiosity arose due to the question his mother asked.

 “arouse”是及物动词,过去式和过去分词为aroused,其语义为“唤醒,引起”

arouse somebody from sleep 把某人唤醒

arouse suspicion 引起怀疑

 

2. laylielie

“lay”及物动词,“放置,生蛋”,过去式与过去分词为 “laid”

I've laid the book on the self.

The hen lays an egg every day.

“lie”不及物动词“位于,平躺”,过去式为“lay”过去分词 “lain”

He lay on the floor and slept soundly.

Beijing lies in the north of China.

“lie”及物动词“说谎”,它是规则动词。

He lied to his teacher.

 

3. sitseat

“sit”不及物动词,过去式与过去分词均为 “sat”

He sat in the classroom reading newspaper.

“seat”及物动词,“使就坐”“容纳”。

He seats himself here.

He is seated there.

He seats the baby on his knees.

The hall will seat 5000 people.

 

4. affecteffect

“affect” 及物动词,“对……有影响,感动,触及”

The relations between then will be affected.

“effect” 及物动词, “导致,造成,带来(变化),产生”

The changes in methods effected some improvement in his study.

 

5. hang (hanged, hanged) / (hung, hung)

hang过去式与过去分词为 “hanged”,其含义是“绞死”;而当hang的过去式与过去分词为“hung”时,其含义是“悬挂”。

The man was hanged for murder. He hung his coat on the hook.

 

6. borrowlend “borrow”借入 “borrow sth. from ...”

“lend”(lent, lent) 借出 “lend sb. sth” “lend sth. To sb.”

 

7. takebringfetch

“take”(took, taken) 及物动词“拿走”

“bring”(brought, brought) 及物动词“带走” “fetch”及物动词,“去取回来”

 

8. receiveaccept

“receive” 客观上收到

“accept” 主观上愿意接受

I received his gift, but I wouldn't like to accept it.

 

9. fit, suit“适合”

“fit” 指“尺寸”的适合

“suit” 指“款式,花样等”的适合

The dress doesn't fit me. It is too long.

Blue is the color that suits her well.

 

10. answerreply “回答”

“answer” vt.

“reply” vi 须和 “to”连用

“you needn't know it.” He answered.

So far, they haven't answered / replied to our questions.

 

11. spend, cost, take “花费”

“spend” (spent, spent) 花“时间,金钱”主语须是人。

He spend 5 hours writing the article.

“cost” (cost, cost) 花费“金钱,时间,劳力”可接双宾,主语须是“物”

The book cost me $20 and 2 days.

“take” 通常指花“时间”主语须是“某种事情”

It takes me 20 minuter to go to school.

The work took me longer than I expected.

 

12. assureensure

“assure” 使放心 assure sb. of sth.

assure sb. that...

I can assure you of my honesty.

“ensure” 保证 ensure sth.(其后不能接人称)

ensure that

ensure doing sth.

I can ensure his safety.

He ensured that he finished the job in time.

He ensured coming back later.

百分重点:如ensure 含义为“保护,使安全”,其结构为:

ensure sb from / against sth.

He ensured the boy from drowning.

 

13. beat, defeat, win vt.

“beat” (beat, beaten) 战胜,打败比赛,辩论中的对手

He beat John at chess yesterday.

“defeat”“击败”敌军,入侵者,整个球队

They defeated the enemy in that battle.

“win” (won, won)“赢得比赛”win over sb.(赢了某人)

The football team won the match.

 

14. damagedestroyhurtspoilwoundinjure.

以上六个词中,“hurt” 可作及物,不及物动词外,其余五个均为及物动词。

“damage” —— 损坏(害)(有修复的可能性)

“destroy” —— 摧毁,打破(希望,计划)毁灭(无修复的可能性)

“hurt” —— 伤害(感情或身体某一部位)痛疼

“spoil” —— 破坏,糟蹋(晚会,旅游,参观等)宠爱,惯怀(孩子)

“wound” —— 使受伤(枪伤,刀伤)

“injure” —— 使受伤

e.g. Don't spoil your son too much.

The man has destroyed the girl's life all her hopes.

Some houses were damaged in the earthquake.

I don't mean to hurt you.

He was injured in the accident.

It was dangerous because he was wounded seriously in the war.

 

测试精编

1. His newly-published novel is quite a success ________ a good income from the reading public.

A. ensuring him                       B. assuring him

C. assuring him of                     D. assuring him about

 

2. Before discussing the steps in detail, ________.

A. a general principle should be laid down.

B. I should like to lie down a general principle

C. I'd like to lay down a general principle

D. a general principle lies.

 

3. The typewriter ________.

A. was laying on the table, where it had laid all week.

B. was lying on the table, where it had laid all week.

C. was laying on the table, where it had been laid all week.

D. was lying on the table, where it had been laid all week.

 

4. Up till now, these problems have been ________ for centuries.

A. laying dormant                     B. laying dormantly

C. lying dormant                      D. lain dormantly

 

5. During the period of inflation, the value of money drops as ________.

A. prices rise                         B. prices arise

C. the price is rising                   D. prices are raised

 

6. When all the students ________, the professor began his lecture.

A. seated         B. sit         C. were seated         D. seat

 

7. My watch ________ five o'clock.

A. says          B. tells        C. speaks             D. talks

 

8. “Oh, glad to see you, John.” “What ________ you to this city?”

A. carries        B. brings       C. takes              D. makes

 

9. “He has been working very hard recently.” “Because the burden of a big family has been ________ on his shoulder.”

A. bear          B. borne         C. born            D. bore

 

10. The visiting delegates were urged to ________.

A. talk at liberty                    B. state their open minds

C. make individual expressions        D. speak freely

 

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