Lesson 11 How to grow old
by BERTRAND RUSSELL
from Portraits from Memory
11-1. Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death.
oppress：使（心情等）沉重；使烦恼，折磨（to make someone feel unhappy, worried, or uncomfortable），
A sense of trouble ahead oppressed my spirits.
be oppressed by the unpleasant climate 被讨厌的气候弄得烦恼
a writer oppressed by his shortcomings
Somehow, the room oppressed him. 这房间不知怎么使他感到压抑。
11-2. In the young there is a justification for this feeling.
【讲解】in the young意为“在年轻人身上”。in sb.即为“在某人身上”。the young指年轻人。
justification：正当的理由；借口（a good and acceptable reason for doing something），
believe with amplejustification that someone is guilty
You have no justification for criticizing his in that way.
11-3. Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer.
【讲解】who have reason…battle为定语从句，修饰young men。that they have cheated…offer为同位语从句，说明thought的内容。that life has to offer为定语从句，修饰things。
与cheat someone（out）of something类似的结构还有rob someone of something。
11-4. But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble.
【讲解】whatever work it was in him to do作achieved的宾语从句。这里的in表示能力。in him即他有能力。whatever work相当于any work，作do的宾语。it是形式主语，to do才是真正的主语。who has known…him to do为定语从句，修饰an old man， has known和has achieved为who的并列谓语。
abject：可鄙的，卑鄙的（an abject action or expression shows that your feel very ashamed），
an abject coward 可鄙的懦夫
an abject fear 卑怯
abject另一常见意为“绝望无助的，凄苦可怜的（the state of being extremely poor, unhappy, unsuccessful etc）”，
abject poverty 赤贫
abject failure 惨败
ignoble：卑鄙的；不光彩的；可耻的（ignoble thoughts, feelings, or actions are ones that you should feel ashamed or embarrassed about），