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大家一起来啃新概念四:第十一课论老之将至
更新:2011-07-25 17:02 作者:jessica 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

Lesson 11 How to grow old
第十一课论老之将至


by BERTRAND RUSSELL
from Portraits from Memory


11-1. Some old people are oppressed by the fear of death.


【译文】 有些老人因恐惧死亡而苦恼。


【单词和短语】


oppress:使(心情等)沉重;使烦恼,折磨(to make someone feel unhappy, worried, or uncomfortable),

例如:
A sense of trouble ahead oppressed my spirits.
前面的重重困难使我心情沉重。


be oppressed by the unpleasant climate 被讨厌的气候弄得烦恼


a writer oppressed by his shortcomings
对自己的短处感到苦恼的作家


Somehow, the room oppressed him. 这房间不知怎么使他感到压抑。


11-2. In the young there is a justification for this feeling.


【译文】年轻人害怕死亡是可以理解的。


【讲解】in the young意为“在年轻人身上”。in sb.即为“在某人身上”。the young指年轻人。


【单词和短语】


justification:正当的理由;借口(a good and acceptable reason for doing something),

例如:
believe with amplejustification that someone is guilty
有充分理由相信某人有罪


You have no justification for criticizing his in that way.
你没有理由那样批评他。


11-3. Young men who have reason to fear that they will be killed in battle may justifiably feel bitter in the thought that they have been cheated of the best things that life has to offer.


【译文】有些年轻人担心他们会在战斗中丧生。一想到会失去生活能给予他们的种种美好事物,他们就感到痛苦。这种担心并非无缘无故,也情有可原。


【讲解】who have reason…battle为定语从句,修饰young men。that they have cheated…offer为同位语从句,说明thought的内容。that life has to offer为定语从句,修饰things。


【单词和短语】


与cheat someone(out)of something类似的结构还有rob someone of something。
 

 

11-4. But in an old man who has known human joys and sorrows, and has achieved whatever work it was in him to do, the fear of death is somewhat abject and ignoble.


【译文】但对于经历了人世悲欢、履行了个人职责的老人,害怕死亡就有些可怜且可耻了。


【讲解】whatever work it was in him to do作achieved的宾语从句。这里的in表示能力。in him即他有能力。whatever work相当于any work,作do的宾语。it是形式主语,to do才是真正的主语。who has known…him to do为定语从句,修饰an old man, has known和has achieved为who的并列谓语。


【单词和短语】


abject:可鄙的,卑鄙的(an abject action or expression shows that your feel very ashamed),

例如:
an abject coward 可鄙的懦夫


an abject fear 卑怯


abject另一常见意为“绝望无助的,凄苦可怜的(the state of being extremely poor, unhappy, unsuccessful etc)”,

例如:
abject poverty 赤贫
abject failure 惨败


ignoble:卑鄙的;不光彩的;可耻的(ignoble thoughts, feelings, or actions are ones that you should feel ashamed or embarrassed about),

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