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新概念二语法题纲(英语动词时态篇)1
更新:2010-07-22 00:10 作者:ihome 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

英语动词时态

 英语时态是英语语法中的第一道难关,功下此难关是作文、阅读、口语之关键。
 汉语用不同词表达相应时态,而英语用同词的不同变化形式表达。
一、英语各种时态构成表:以play为例:
        一般时态     进行时态         完成时态            完成进行时态
现在     play         is               has                  has 
         plays        am  playing      have  palyed        have  been palying
                      are
过去     played        was              had played         had been playing
                       were playing
将来     shall          shall                shall                shall
        will play       will  be playing      will have played   will have been playing
过去     should         should             should                should
将来  would play    would be playing    would have played  would have been playing
二、一般现在时:
1.构成:使用动词原形,第三人称单数须有变化。
(1)直接加“s”,works, takes
(2)以辅音加“y”结尾,变“y”为“i”,再加“es”
     carry → carries
(3)以“o, s, x, ch, sh”结尾的动词加“es”
     goes      dresses     watches     brushes
2.功能:
(1)表现在的事实、状态或动作:
  eg:  u. Birds fly.
   u. She loves music.
   u. Mary’s parents get up very early.
(2)表习惯性动作或职业,常与often, sometimes, usually, always, every week, seldom ,occasionally, frequently等时间副词连用。
eg: u. I always take a walk after supper.
u. She writes to me very often.
u. Tom and his girlfriend go out to take a picnic occasionally.
(3)表客观真理,格言警句或事实:
     u. The earth moves round the Sun.
     u. The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
     u. Two and two makes four.
     u. No man but errs.人非圣坚,熟能无过。
(4)表将来:
 A.在由when, after, before, as, as soon as, al though because, if, even if, in case, till, until, unless, so long as, where, whatever,  wherever等引导的状语从句中用一般现在时表将来发生的动作。例如:(黄金重点,所有考试都不放过它!)
例如:
u. I'll tell her when she comes tomorrow.
u. Even if it rains this afternoon, I'll meet you.
u. Whatever happens, you should keep cool-headed.(不错的句型,背下!!)
u. I'll be right here waiting for you wherever you go(很感人的句型!).
B.按时间表将要发生的动作或事件,用一般现在时表达将来时概念。
u. The play begins at 6:30 this evening.
u. When does he plane take off?
u. He heaves for that city next week.
u. According to the timetable, the express train to Shanghai starts at nine in the
morning.(按照时刻表,开往上海的特快列车早上7点出发。)

测试精编:
1.The Browns           a nice car and Brown's brother         a nice jeep.
A. have / have   B. has / has    C. have / has   D. has / have
2.If their house _______not like ours, what _______it look like?
A. is / is    B. is / does      C. does / does   D. does / is
3.- _______ you think he will come?
-If it _______ tomorrow, he will not come.
A. Do / rains   B. Are / rains    C. Do / will rain     D. Are / will rain
4.The little child _______ not even know that the moon ________ around the earth.
A. do / move   B. do / moves    C. does / moves    D. did / moved
5.Many a student ________ fond of films, but a good student seldom _______ to the cinema.
A. are / goes    B. is / goes    C. are / go    D. is / go
二.现在进行时:is/am/are+现在分词
1.表示现在正在进行的动作。如
u. The kettle is boiling. Shall I make tea?
u. Don’t you think you eat too much? You’re putting on weight. (体重增加)
u. The workers are building a new bridge across the river.
2.表现阶段正进行的动作。
u. He is taking physics this semester(本学期).
u. We are preparing for our final examination this week.

3.go, come, leave, arrive, land, meet, die, start, return, join, etc用于进行时态表示即将开始的动作。
u. Look! The bus is coming. 看!车来了!
u. The old man is seriously ill, and he is dying.
u. Alice is leaving for Beijing with her mother.

4. 与always, forever, continually, constantly等副词连用,表示说话人带有感情色彩:赞赏或厌恶。
u. He is always thinking of others. (他总是想着别人。)
u. The boy is continually making noises. (这男孩不断地发出吵闹声。)
u. The teacher is constantly(always)criticizing her for being late.
(老师一直在(总是)批评她迟到。)
5.下面表示状态、感觉、情绪、精神活动的动词不可用于进行时。
(此条戒律请背20遍!!!)
 believe(相信), doubt(怀疑), see(看见), hear(听见), know(知道), understand(理解), belong(属于), think(认为), consider(认为), feel(觉得), look(看起来), seem(看上去), show(显示), mind(介意), have(有), sound(听起来), taste(尝起来),  require(要求), possess(拥有), care(关心), like(喜欢),  hate(讨厌),     love(喜爱),  detest(憎恨),  desire(意欲)
[ 简单记忆 ]:
 永远不要说I’m believing… 或He is seeing a house. 再简单一点说,这些动词后面不要随意加 –ing. 
 可怕的是 :我们在写作及口语中常犯此类大错!
 注意:have a party / think about可以用进行时,因这里have 意为“举行”;think 意为“考虑”。

测试精编:
1.How can you           if you are not          ?
 A. listening / hearing    B. hear / listening
 C. be listening / heard   D. be hearing / listening to
2.The girl even won't have her lunch before she         her homework.
A. will finish         B. is finishing
C. had finished      D. finishes
3.Those who have applied for the post(职位)          in the office. (此题超前)
A. are being interviewed       B. are interviewing
C. interviewing                D. to be interviewing
4.The old scientist          to do more for the country.
A. is wishing                   B. has been wishing
C. wishes                     D. has been wished
5.If he         , don't wake him up.
A. still sleeps                  B. is still sleeping  
C. still has been sleeping       D. will be sleeping still


三. 一般过去时。定义动词的过去式:
1. 表示过去某个特定时间或某一段时间发生的动作或情况。
  u.  We visited the school last spring.
   u.  I went to school by bike when I was in middle school.
   u.  China was founded in 1949.
 2.在表示时间或条件等的状语从句中代替过去将来时。
u. She told me that she would not go with us if it rained the next day.
u. They would not leave until she came back.
u. My friend promised to marry me once she made her final decision.

3.一般过去时,现在时和过去时的几组差异:(别说这是 a piece of cake, 下面的差异你不一定明白。)
 Her brother was a chemist.(已去世)
 Her brother is a chemist.(尚健在)

 That's all I had to say.(话已说完)
 That's all I have to say.(言之未尽)

 It was so nice to see you.(离别时用)
 It is so nice to see you.(见面时用)

 Jane did a lot of work this morning.(已是当天下午或晚上)
 Jane has done a lot of work this morning. (仍是上午)  [本句现在完成时,此乃后话!]

测试精编I: (用所给动词的正确进态填空)。
1. Yesterday I          (think)that you were not in Beijing.
2. Alice usually          (sit)in the front of the classroom, but she          (sit) at the back this morning.
3. He          (tell)the news to us three days ago.
4. He          (begin)to teach Chinese in 1990.
5. She would not telephone me if she         (have)no time.

测试精编II:
1. They          the trip until the rain stopped.
A. continued     B. didn't continue   C. hadn't continued    D. would continue
2.The local peasants gave the soldiers clothes and food without which they       of hunger and cold. (without 在这里表条件,你知道吗?)
A.  would die    B.  will die        C.  would be dead     D. would have died
3. It was not until then that I came to know that the earth          around the sun.
A. moved        B.  has moved    C. will move           D. moves
4.When all those present(到场者)         he began his lecture.(重点题)
A. sit            B. set             C. seated             D. were seated
5.If I had had time,I would have written to you. But in fact I        not.
A. have          B. would have     C. had                D. had had

四.过去进行时:were/was+现在分词。
1.表示过去某一时刻或阶段正在发生的动作。
u. I was playing chess at 8 yesterday evening.
u. When I arrived, they were watching TV.
u. They were doing housework this time last week.
2.用于条件状语从句中表示过去将来进行的动作。
u. She told me to wake him up if she was sleeping.
u. I asked my friend to warn me about it as long as I was driving too fast.

3.过去某时将发生的事 。可参考一2(4)
u. They told me that they were leaving for New York.
u. He was going out when I arrived.

测试精编:

1. My brother         while he          his bicycle and hurt himself.
A. fell / was riding          B. feel / were riding
C. had fallen / rode         D. had fallen / was riding
2. He         his leg as he          in a football match.
A. broke / played           B. was breaking / was playing  
C. broke / was playing      D. was breaking / played
3. -My father will be here tomorrow.
  -I thought that he         today.
A. was corning      B. is coming        C. will come             D. comes
4. Jcak was going out of the shop when he collided with an old woman who         in.
A. come            B.  was coming     C.  had been coming    D.  had come
5. Michike couldn't come to the telephone when Mr. Smith called her became she
         in the lab.
A. had been working       B.  has been working
C. was working            D.  worked

五.现在完成时:have/had+过去分词
1.表示过去所发生的动作对现在的影响或产生的结果。常与yet, just, before, recently, lately, ever, never等状语搭配连用。
He hasn't seen her lately.
I haven't finished the book yet.
2.表示一个从过去某个时间开始,延续到现在,并可能持续下去的动作,常与表示段时间的时间状语连用。如:so far(迄今为止), up till now, since, for a long time, up to present ,in the past / in the last few years, these days……
He has worked here for 15 years.
I have studied English since I came here.
The foreigner has been away from China for a long time.
So far, I haven’t received a single letter from my brother.
3.某些非延续性动词(即:动作开始便终止的动词),在现在完成时中,不能与段时间状语搭配。
  黄金般要点:
I. 常见的非延续动词:die, arrive, join, leave, go, refuse, fail, finish,buy, marry, divorce, awake, buy, borrow, lend…..
II. 这类动词并非不能用现在完成时,而是不能接常由for引导的时间状语。
III. 但若是用在否定句中,非延续动词的现在完成时可以与表示一段时间的状语连用。
She has gone away for a month.(误)
She has been away for a month.(正)
The man has died for two years.(误)
The man has been dead for two years.(正)
How long have you bought the book?(误)
How long have you got the book.(正)

4.注意since的用法:
They haven't had any trouble since they came here.
It has been ten years since we met last time.
He has been here since 1980.
He has been here since ten years ago.

5.几组对比:
He has gone to Shanghai.  他到上海去了。
He has been to Shanghai.  他去过上海。
She has gone.  她已走了。
She is gone.  她缺席了。(or她死了。)
The door has been closed.  门关上了。(动作)
The door is closed. 门是关着的。(状态)

Exercises:
1.The prices         going up all the time in the past few years.
A. keep      B. kept     C. have kept     D. are keeping
2.For the whole period of two months, there        no rain in this area.
A. is    B. will be    C. has been    D. have been
3.Today is Jane's wedding day. She        John.
A. have just married with        B. was just married to
C. has just been married to      D. just has been married to
4.No wonder the flower have withered, they        any water for ages.
A. hadn't    B. haven't    C. haven't had    D. hadn't had
5.Nowdays computer         a wide application with the development of production and science.
A. found     B. has found        C. finds     D. had found

 

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