您所在的位置:主页 > 语法词汇 > 英语语法 >
基础英语天天学(八十三)
更新:2018-10-09 12:04 作者:davad 来源:未知 点击:1 次  

本课您将学到:prefer A to B, of句型+抽象名词的常见类型

  In France, daily social relations are always dominated(支配、统治) by family ties(纽带). The family has been the focus of the individual(个体)'s loyalty(忠诚、忠心) and affection(影响), of his economic interest, and even of his legal(法律上的) duty. Many an old Frenchman spent his youth(青春时代) in a world where he was expected to regard his cousin, uncle, and grandmother as more important to him than his friends of his own age.

  French family needs and demands were put before those of local(当地的) community or even those of the state(国家的): “I can't pay my taxes because I have a duty to support my uncle.” has been a common French attitude(态度).

  The main change since the war is that the focus of loyalty has been steadily(平稳地) narrowed(收缩) from “extended family” to the “nuclear family”. Many younger couples today prefer pleasure traveling with couples of friends to reunite(团聚) with big families at weekends or in August.

  「读书笔记」

  在法国的日常生活中,家庭纽带(family ties)主宰着社会关系。家庭不仅是一个人忠诚和情感的中心,(the focus of the individual's loyalty and affection)而且也是经济利益(of his economic interest)和法律义务的集中点(even of his legal duty)。许多年长的法国人是在这样一个环境下长大的:别人要求他们把尊老爱幼放在一个重要的位置,(where he was expected to regard his cousin, uncle, and grandmother as more important to him)甚过对待他们同龄的朋友。(than his friends of his own age)

  不知大家注意到没有,这段的最后一句话,把many和a连在一起使用了。这是什么道理呢?

  其实,这也是表达“很多”的一种方式,用法是:many a 后接单数名词,在句中作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。比如:

  We've been here many a time.
  我们这儿已来过多次。

  Many a great idea is brought forward in the meeting about the 2008 Olympic games.
  在商议2008年奥运会的会议上,新点子层出不穷。

  法国人总把家庭的需求(needs and demands)放在社区、甚至国家的前面。(before those of local community or even those of the state)“我不能交税,因为我得养活我叔叔。”这种态度在法国早已很普通了。

  Support在这里指to provide enough money for someone to pay for all the things they need,也就是“养活”的意思。比如:

  He has a large family to support.
  他要抚养一大家人。

  战后以来,(since the war)法国人对家庭的忠诚焦点早已从相对的大家庭而稳步缩小,转向了小家庭。(that the focus of loyalty has been steadily narrowed from “extended family” to the “nuclear family”)如今的许多年轻夫妇宁肯在周末或夏天(at weekends or in August)和朋友去快乐地旅行,也不愿意回父母家中团聚。(prefer pleasure traveling with couples of friends to reunite with big families)

  「句型留言板」

  prefer A to B...(此句型中的to是介词,后接名词、代词或动名词)

  喜欢A,不喜欢B;宁愿A,不愿B

  这是个常见又实用的句型,在初中的课本上,我们就学过了。所以,今天的主要任务是把它的用法加以总结,加深大家的印象,同时,给出类似的用法,使大家的语言形式更丰富些。

  1、prefer…to形式:

  使用这个句型,最重要的原则就是“前后一致”,也就是说,prefer和to后面的部分,不论词性、形式都要相同。来看看例子:

  I prefer fish to meat.我喜欢鱼,而不喜欢肉。(prefer名词to名词)

  I prefer reading to playing.我宁愿读书,不愿玩耍。(prefer动名词to动名词)

  2、prefer to do sth. + rather than do sth.(注意:rather than的后面没有to)

  She preferred to go with us rather than stay behind.
  她宁愿和我们一道去也不愿留下。

  Rather than ride on a crowded bus,he always prefers to ride a bicycle.
  与其乘坐拥挤的公共汽车,他倒更愿意总是骑自行车。

  特别提示:

  以上两个句型都可以和would rather do sth. than do sth.替换。比如,下面这三句话表达的意思是相同的:

  The bus is too crowded;
  I prefer walking home to taking the bus.
  I prefer to walk home rather than take the bus.
  I would rather walk home than take the bus.
  公共汽车太拥挤,我宁愿步行回家也不愿乘车。

  「语法小教室」

  在阅读中,我们经常会碰到of+抽象名词的情况,今天,我们就把几种常见的形式为大家简单分析一下。

  1、of+抽象名词=形容词。如:
  a women of wealth/wisdom/courage=a wealthy/wise/courageous woman

  2、be of+修饰语+抽象名词。比如:
  be of importance/help/use/significance=be important/helpful/useful/significant

  这一结构可用于说明主语的性质,比如:
  This question is of importance.(=This question is important.)

  大家可能会问,为什么不直接用后一种说法呢?那不是更容易理解吗?其实,像上面这句话,前后两种说法差别不大,用哪一种都可以。有时候,我们为了强调某种抽象的含义,用这种形式就可以达到很好的效果。比如,我们要表达时间是“宝贵”的,就可以用be of value取代be valuable,为了加强效果,还可以在value前面加上修饰语great,造个句子:

  Each hour, each minute, each second is of great value for us.
  每小时、每分钟、每一秒对我们都很宝贵。

  (体会一下,是不是比Each hour, each minute, each second is very valuable for us.效果好些?而且,适当变化句式,也可以使我们的语言更有活力,对吗?)

  特别提示:

  常用于这一结构的修饰语还有little ,some ,any, no, not, much,常见的抽象名词有importance, value, use, help, benefit(利益、好处),significance(意义、重要性)。比如:of no use =useless(无用的)

  3、还有一种情况,我们必须使用这种句型,就是of后面的抽象名词没有相应的形容词形式,为了表明主语的这类特征,我们只能用“be of+抽象名饲”的形式代替“be+形容词”结构。这类名词包括size, weight, height, length, width, age ,opinion ,colour , price, kind, type, shape, way等。比如:

声明:如果本文侵犯您的权益,请联系本站删除!