更新：2009-02-21 12:28 作者：admin 来源：未知 点击：1
will/must/can/would/could/have to be done
have/has been done
must have been done
4. Summary of Unit two
and, but, so, yet, or, both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but …as well, not only…but also
当主语由and , both…and 连接时,通常用复数谓语.
Both the girls and the boy are his friends.
当主语由neither… nor, either…or, not only…but also或or 连接时,谓语动词与 nor, or, but also后面的一致,在英语语法中，这被称为就近一致.
Neither he nor I am going to the airport.
Not only Mary but also her parents have gone abroad.
appear(看起来), appreciate(鉴赏), believe(相信), feel(感觉到), forget(忘记), hear(听见), know(知道), like(喜欢), look like(看起来像), notice(注意到), remember(记得), resemble(形似), see(看到), think(认为), understand(理解), have(拥有),love(爱), seem(看起来), show(显示), mind(介意), sound(听起来), hate(讨厌), detest(憎恨), desire(意欲),
在said, asked, 等词后面用逗号,只有当它们位于句尾时才在它们后面用句号.
put up(搭建), put out(扑灭), put on(穿上), put sb. up(为某人安排住宿), put up with(容忍), put down(抄写), put off(推迟), put away(放好，放到一边去)
yet, just, before, recently, lately, ever, never,
so far(迄今为止), up till now(直到现在), up to now(直到现在), since(自从), for a long time(很长时间), in the past/in the last few years(在过去的几年里), these days(目前),
l 某些非延续性动词(动作开始变终止的动词), 在现在完成时中不 能与表示一段时间状语搭配:
例如:die, arrive, join, leave, go, refuse , fail, finish, buy, marry, divorce, awake, buy, borrow, lend, 这些动词并非不能用在现在完成时,而是不能接由for引导的时间状语.但是用在否定句中，非延续动词的现在完成时可以与表示一段时间的状语连用.
Jane has gone away for a month. (wrong)
Jane has been away for a month.(right)
His father has died for two years. (wrong)
His father has been dead for two years.(right)
has gone to (去了某地,指人还在那里), have been to (去过某地, 人已经不在那里了)。
refuse/deny, bring/take/fetch, very/too
l 河流the yellow river
l 山脉 the Alps, the Himalayas
l 海峡海湾the Taiwan Straits, the English Channel
l 国名及政治组织名the United States, the United Kingdom
l 某些机构学校及建筑名 the British Museum
l 由普通名词构成的报刊杂志名 the New York Times, the Times
3. 车站, 机场, 公园, 桥梁名: Kennedy Airport, Beijing Railway Station, London Bridge
4. 大学名 Yale University, Cambridge University
5. 节日名National Day, May Day, News Years’ Day
6. 多数杂志名 Time, Reader’s Digest
7. 物质名词一般意义 Water boils at 100 degrees. We can not live without air.
8. 抽象名词 Life is short. Art is difficult to appreciate.
1.used to do 用法
Used to do 表示过去常常做某事现在不做了
I used to get up at seven o’clock.
Experience, save, very/too
一般现在时: is/am/are done
一般过去时: was/were done
现在进行时: is/am/are being done
现在完成时: have/has been done
过去完成时: had been done
一般将来时: will be done
过去将来时: would be done
过去进行时: was/were being done
情态动词: can be done, must be done, could be done, may be done, might be done,
情态动词完成式: can have been done,must have been done,could have been done, may have been done，might have been done,
Call at(拜访某地), call out at(大声喊), call on(拜访某人), call sb up(给某人打电话), call off(取消)
6.一般将来时will/be going to do
will/be going to do一般情况下可以相互替换,但是要表示说话人决定做某事或者表示建议,请求, 肯定或不肯定等含义时只能用will.
Watch/look at/follow, solid/firm/stable
Hold/look, look forward to(期望), look out(当心), look up (查询,), look sb. up(拜访某人)
8.as if /though+虚拟语气, 过去完成时总结
as if /though 常在描述行为的动词后面使用, 如act/look/feel/appear/smell/sound, 后面要用虚拟语气
He looks as if he were a king.
Her skin feels as if it were silk.
The song sounds as if it were a sad story.
He looked as if he had never lived in England.
No sooner…than, hardly…when, country/countryside, continuously, continually,
No sooner…than 一…就… 与过去完成时连用
I had no sooner come into the room than it began to rain.
The bell had no sooner rung than the game began.
如果no sooner 放在句首, 主句的主谓结构倒装
No sooner had I come into the room than it began to rain.
No sooner had the bell rung than it began to rain.
Hardly…when 几乎没来得及…就… 与过去完成时连用
He had hardly got the money when the policeman caught him.
I had hardly finished the last question when the exam ended.
Hardly had he got the money when the policeman caught him.
Hardly had I finished the last question when the exam ended.
3.时态变化: 一般现在时-一般过去时, 一般过去时-过去完成时, 一般将来时-过去将来时, 现在进行时-过去进行时, 现在完成时-过去完成时, can-could, may-might, must-had to,
this-that, these-those, now-then, today, tonight-that day, that night, this week-that week, yesterday-the day before, the previous day, last week- the week before, two days ago-two days before(earlier), tomorrow-the next (following) day, next week-the following week, here-there, come, bring-go, take
She said she would come again tonight.
He said he arrived yesterday morning.
n 特殊疑问句, 语序要变为陈述语序
“Where are you going?” he asked.
He asked me where I was going.
n 一般疑问句, 要加if/whether
“Will you come tomorrow?” he asked.
He asked if I would come the next day.
n 祈使句要变为不定式, 所使用的谓语要根据语气来选择
“Stay here,” the policeman said.
The policeman requested him to stay there.
“Close the window, please,” my mother said.
My mother asked me to close the window.
常用的动词: advise, ask, beg, command(命令), order, warn, tell, urge(催促), invite, persuade, remind, forbid
结构: 主句用过去时, 从句用过去将来时
If you came here earlier, you would catch the train.
If you spent more time on studying, you would get better result.
If I were you, I would accept this offer.
注意: 如果if从句中的动词是be, 那么应该在第一和第三人称单数名词后用 were.
make conversation(聊天), make the bed(铺床), make a promise(许诺), make trouble(找麻烦), make progress(取得进步), make money(赚钱), make a speech(演讲,讲话), make mistakes(犯错误), make up one’s mind(下定决心)
do one’s best(尽最大努力), do one’s homework(做家庭作业), do a few jobs(做家务), do sb. a favour(帮忙), do work(工作), do exercise(做练习), do shopping(购物), do business(做生意)