主动：Tom gave me a present on my birthday. 我生日那天汤姆送我一件礼物。
被动：I was given a present by Tom on my birthday.
A present was given to me yesterday.
1. 在下列动词后，通常在间接宾语前用介词to：bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, sell, show, take,通tell等。
2. 在下列动词后，一般在间接宾语前用介词for：build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing等。
主动：Mother made me a new skirt. 母亲给我做了件衬衣。
被动：A new skirt was made for me.
3. 由于某些动词与介词有习惯搭配，既不用to也不用for, 而用别的介词。如:
People all over the world know the Great Wall. 世界上的人都知道长城。
The Great Wall is known to people all over the world. （不用by短语）
Tom wrote me a letter．
误：I was written a letter by Tom．
正：A letter was written to me by Tom．
类似的动词还有：return, send, pass, hand, sell, teach等。
We always keep the classroom clean.
The classroom is always kept clean.
They asked me to help them.
I was asked to help them.
We saw them playing football.
They were seen playing football.
1. 在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带to，但改成被动语态后要加上to。
We often hear her sing.
She is often heard to sing.
We called him an ass.
误：As ass was called him.
正：He was called an ass.
The patient is being operated on.
His request was turned down.
注：这类短语动词常见的还有agree to, ask for, laugh at, listen to, look after, think of, talk about, call on等。常用的由“及物动词+副词”构成的短语动词有bring about, carry out, find out, give up, hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put on, put off, take off, think over, work out, turn out, sell out, use up look up (查询)等。
The poor were looked down upon then.